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Articles by Brian Van Brunt

Advertising and Marketing a BIT


Assessment of BIT

BITs and Other Departments 

Case Management

Community College and BIT

Lessons from Past Attacks

Mental Health and Disability



Special Topics

Threat and Violence Risk Assessment

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Government Publications


Mass Attacks in Public Spaces

This report is NTAC’s second analysis of mass attacks that were carried out in public spaces. View.


Pre-Attack Behaviors of Active Shooters

By articulating the concrete, observable pre-attack behaviors of many active shooters, the FBI hopes to make these warning signs more visible and easily identifiable. View.


Protective Intelligence Threat Assessment Investigations

This guide describes an approach to threat assessment that can be of assistance to law enforcement and security with protective intelligence duties. View.


Report on the Arapahoe High School Shooting

The purpose of this report was to understand the school's threat and risk assessment procedures and responses, and lessons learned to improve youth violence prevention across the U.S. View.


Mass Violence in America

The National Council for Behavioral Health Medical Director Institute convened an expert panel to analyze the root causes of mass violence. View.

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Making Prevention a Reality

This report is based on a symposium of researchers, mental health experts, and law enforcement officials addressing effective prevention of the active shooter phenomenon. View.


Indicators of School Crime and Safety

This report covers victimization, teacher injury, bullying and electronic bullying, school conditions, fights, weapons, availability and student use of drugs and alcohol, student perceptions of personal safety at school, and criminal incidents at postsecondary institutions.  View.


Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model

This operational guide provides direction on how to prevent targeted school violence. View.

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Mass Victimization: Promising Avenues for Prevention

This document identifies strategies that contribute to preventing, not predicting, targeted violence resulting in mass casualty events. View.


Threat Assessment in Schools

This is a guide for managing threatening situations in the school setting and for creating safer school climates by setting a process for identifying, assessing, and managing students who may pose a threat. View. 

Research Articles

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The Concept of Leakage in Threat Assessment

This article defines leakage and explains how it can help in the prevention of mass casualty attacks. View.

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An Exploration of the Risk, Protective, and Mobilization Factors to Violent Extremism in College Populations

This article examines risk factors for violent extremism, mobilization factors contributing to violent actions, and protective factors that reduce the potential for violence. View.

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Using Suspicious Activity Reporting and Threat Assessments to Enhance School Safety

Informed, alert communities play a critical role in keeping the nation safe. This article explains the importance of encouraging reporting of suspicious activity. View. 

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Assessing Threat in Written Communications, Social Media, and Creative Writing

This article provides a framework for reviewing and understanding written messages and assessing them for potential lethality and dangerousness. View.

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The Warning Behaviors of Anders Breivik

This case study looks at Anders Breivik's activities and mental state through the lens of eight warning behaviors that may indicate proximal and dynamic patterns of risk for targeted violence: pathway. View.

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The Role of Warning Behaviors in Threat Assessment

The concept of warning behaviors offers an additional perspective in threat assessment.  This paper offers an explanation and suggested typology. View.

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Rampage School Shooters: A Typology

This article examines the cases of ten rampage school shooters in an effort to find out not only how they are alike, but also how they differ. View.

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Shooting Alone: The Pre-Attack Experiences and Behaviors of U.S. Solo Mass Murderers

This article examines various properties of 115 mass shooters in the U.S. between 1990 and 2014 in search of commonalities. View.

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Violence Risk Assessment: Getting Specific About Being Dynamic

In this article, the authors differentiate risk status from risk state, analyze the relevance of contemporary risk assessment measures for capturing dynamic risk, and distill dynamic risk factors from the literature. View.

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The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative

This is the culmination of an extensive examination of 37 incidents of targeted school violence that occurred in the United States from December 1974 through May 2000. View.

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Debunking the Myth: Mental Illness and Mass Shootings

There is a pervasive assumption that mental illness equates to dangerousness and violence as it relates to mass shootings. The researchers examine the assumption. View. 

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Threat Assessment: Defining an Approach for Evaluating Risk of Targeted Violence

This paper attempts to define an approach developed by the Secret Service and apply it within the existing professional/scientific literature on risk assessment. View.

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The Contagion Effect as it Relates to Public Mass Shootings and Suicides

The authors provide relevant research and advice to assist Behavioral Intervention Teams (BITs) toward reducing the risk of copycat public mass shootings and suicides. View.

Threat Assessment Books

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The Concept of Leakage in Threat Assessment

This guide summarizes the existing literature on campus teams and suggests some of the key issues that should be considered when creating or managing a campus team. View.